Work in progress..
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We base present science mostly on our "limited" life-span views of the Universe and tiny measurements made relative to our own tiny Earth (Relative to the enormous size of the Universe, tiny is an overstatement). What if we expand our thinking beyond the present to include millions, even billions of years and millions, even billions of kilometers? If we expand our thinking outward then an amazing amount of related possibilities will emerge!
Thought Experiment: Time for more Time.
Real world example using real world numbers.
A GPS Satellite at GEO (20,000 kilometers from Earth), GAINS 45 Microseconds a day due to General Relativity. We will ignore Special Relativity, for now, explanation follows the experiment. The clocks on the GPS Satellite are actually designed to tick at a different rate to correct for this. The numbers used here are actual, not exaggerated. (Do an Internet search after the thought experiment for "Relativity Effects on GEO GPS Satellites" to learn more.)
If the GEO GPS clocks were not altered, there would be a 45 Microseconds per day difference between the GEO GPS Satellite's clocks and Earth clocks due to only General Relativity by itself (also known as Gravimetric Time Dilation).
But that is silly small, right? How can that tiny amount possibly mean anything? By itself, it shouldn't and doesn't mean much to us but .. Our life spans and even the entire Human History is also silly small compared to Cosmic Time or the age of the Universe.
Now it's Time for more Time!
Here are some numbers to crunch! (Relatively Easy Math). Feel free to verify along the way.
45 Micro Seconds per Day times 365 Days per Year equals .016425 Seconds per Year.
.000045 x 365 = .016425 Seconds, over a tenth of a Second.
Still seems insignificant, right? Let's take it beyond Human History and see what happens.
Now imagine that the Satellite was somehow launched a long Time ago. A Long, Long Time ago, say 10 Million Years ago!
Some Dinosaurs lived 10,000,000 Years ago. Maybe they launched it? Doubtful.. Anyway...
The imaginary GEO GPS Satellite has also had an additional clock installed that has not been altered in any way. For experimental purposes, only that unaltered clock will be used here. This unaltered clock, therefore, shows the 45 Microseconds per Day difference that is normally adjusted by the GPS system's specially designed main clock.
45 Micro Seconds per Day times 365 Days per Year equals .016425 Seconds gain per Year.
.000045 x 365 = .016425
.016425 Seconds gained per year for 10,000,000 years equals 164,250 Seconds gain.
.016425 x 10,000,000 = 164,250
It appears that the Satellite launched 10 Million Years ago now shows an additional 164,250 Seconds on its clock today. What does that actually mean?
164,250 Seconds divided by 60 Seconds per Minute equals 2737.5 Minutes.
(164250 / 60 = 2737.5)
2737.5 divided by 60 Minutes per Hour equals 45.625 Hours
(2737.5 / 60 = 45.625)
And 24 Hours per Day is..
In 10 Million years our GPS satellite's unaltered clock has gained almost 2 days compared to the Earth!
We can see by this one example alone that expanding our thinking out to only 10 Million Years has already created significant numbers. The silly small amount of 45 Microseconds has now become a difference of almost 2 Days! This is only the beginning! The Jurassic Period was 150 Million Years ago, not 10 Million Years ago. Do the Math on that too if you like crunching numbers. Keep all this in mind!
But how could we have just ignored Special Relativity since the Satellite is moving very fast? The answer to that is more questions: Does Time Dilation continue to occur when the Satellite moves by any random spot at 20,000 Kilometers above the Earth? With that said, does Time Dilation also occur when the Satellite is NOT at any random spot at 20,000 Kilometers above the Earth?
Special Relativity requires something to be moving relative to something else. However, General Relativity is not based on movement and should occur even if nothing is there to measure it! On a broader sense, the entire orbit of the satellite marks a "ring" of a specific value of Time Dilation at a specific distance from Earth.(Similar to the rings in the picture below!)
Since this "ring" of a specific value of Time Dilation at the orbit of the Satellite does not move, only the satellite does, we can ignore the movement of the Satellite and concentrate on the ring area instead. Time Dilation should be absolutely the same at all points in a perfectly circular orbit.
At this point in our technology and understanding of Time Dilation, there is no way I have heard of to directly detect this particular ring of Time Dilation. Instead, it is calculated using sometimes complex equations and has also been verified from very precise Time measurements taken at different distances from a "Gravity" source such as the Earth. However, there may be major flaws in this method!
In another thought experiment in the newer book in progress, I assigned a Space Station as a 1 Second constant. Therefore observations anywhere else must be made "in respect" to our set Time Constant or Tc. In fact, the Earth, not a Space Station, is used almost exclusively as that 1.0 Second Time constant, as in our GPS Satellite thought experiment.
Is there a difference? Which one is correct? The real question is "Which one is more correct?" My 1 second constant on the Space Station is slightly more correct but only if we view it from a Cosmic aspect.
The original ideas and writings that led to this book and the previous book were based on a paper I wrote over a decade ago. Its long title and wording can be somewhat confusing in itself let alone trying to understand the content. It was even difficult for me to understand what I wrote, leading to many mistakes.
Universal Time Constant to Measure Gravimetric Time Distortions around Massive Objects to Calculate Actual Interstellar Distances.
Thought Experiment: Universal Time Constant
Let's take a roaming trip into deep space in a trans-warp capable Space Shuttle (Yes, I know there is no such thing as trans-warp. It is used here only to forgo years of travel time). Our shuttle is equipped with a specially designed and deployable Time-Gravity sensor probe. Using a very sensitive Gravity meter, we finally roam around long enough to discover a spot far enough from any source of Gravity to get a constant Gravity reading of practically zero.
We stop here and deploy our sensor probe. The probe begins measuring the passing of 1 Second at this spot. On board computers calibrate and synchronize all equipment and clocks to this measured second and have even compensated for the small interference of our nearby Space Shuttle. The probe's Gravity sensors also monitor all Gravity and will adjust the probe's location if any space objects wander near enough to affect the Time circuits. Once again, the on board supercomputer compensates for the tiny mass of our Space Shuttle nearby.
Once all have been calibrated, measured and synchronized, the on board sub-space transmitter (see next paragraph for explanation) is turned on and it now begins transmitting a Digital encoded Time Stamp every few microseconds. It has now become the only Universal Time Constant Beacon in our known Universe. It is the Universal Master Time Clock.
The imaginary sub-space transmissions are instantaneous throughout the Universe so we can ignore transmission Travel Time in this scenario. Of course, travel time does matter but we would have to extend our thought experiments out to many years. In reality, travel time can be adjusted for by computers to give the same results (after waiting a long time for the transmissions to arrive). It is just easier to forgo transmission time compensation and use imaginary instantaneous sub-space frequencies.
This is as close as we can get to a Universal Time Constant of 1.0 Second or 1.0 Tc. Generally speaking, this is the spot in our Universe where 1.0 Second will pass at its fastest possible rate with no influence from anything else in the Universe. It will represent the true raw rate of Time flow. An unaltered, unchanged, unaffected, uncontaminated Time rate of 1.0 Second.
Traveling far away from our newly discovered 1.0 Tc and leaving the probe-turned-beacon behind, we head towards the nearest large Gravity well which happens to conveniently be a black hole. Anyway, as we begin to approach this nearest large source of Gravity, Time begins to slow. A Second is stretched. How do we now represent this numerically knowing we have the ultimate baseline, the new Universal 1.0 Tc? We compare our local Time to the Tc beacon broadcasts.
We stop a long safe distance from the black hole and maintain that distance while making Time measurements. It appears that well over one Second passes at Tc relative to our now-local one Second near a black hole. TL will be designated as Time-Local. 1.0 Tc is the baseline of the whole Universe so we have to represent any other Time relative to Tc.
We measure one second near the black hole and see that 10.00 seconds has elapsed at Tc. In other words 1.0 TL = 10.00 Tc. Since the area of the Time Constant, Tc is our baseline of 1.0, where ever we may wander, it is still the true "Master Clock". So no matter how our local Time changes we have to represent it in terms of that Constant. Whatever we seem to measure locally, we also have to describe what the "Master Time" shows as well.
Move the Space Shuttle even closer to the Black Hole and measure 1.0 Second TL. Our beacon-Tc probe transmissions show 20.0 seconds has elapsed in 1.0 Seconds Locally, therefore we would assign the spot we are at with 20.0 Tc. Simply because 1.0 TL = 20.0 Tc. Hopefully, this concept makes sense.
After spending an hour studying the Black Hole from a distance we compare our clocks again to the Time beacon. The Time Beacon now shows 20 Hours more has elapsed at the Beacon. In that hour we were not moving anywhere fast enough to slow down time so it has nothing to do with the Special Theory of Relativity. It was only the effects of the Gravity from the Black Hole that slowed down time.
If we now return to the Beacon, the 20 Hours extra will still show on the Beacon's clocks. By returning to the Beacon, we have to travel 20 Hours forward in Time? But isn't Time travel just a Theory? Isn't this Science Fiction? Next thing we know we will be traveling backward in Time too?
Gravity = 0.102 s/m per meter at sea level.
9.8 m/s per second, solved for Time (ATD)
0.102 Seconds is the amount of Accumulated Time Dilation change per Meter (and every additional meter) needed to account for Earth acceleration of 9.8 Meters per Second every Second.
Another way to express this would be to change ds/dt to dT/ds where large T would represent Accumulated Gravitational Time Dilation. The difference in T (ATD) per difference in S (Distance).