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This is a re-write of my published book released years before "Interstellar", the movie, and therefore this website or ideas are in no way based or derived from that movie.

The original publication was meant to make fun of my "unique" ideas and never any actual persons.

Later I realized that a time factor theory wasn't something to laugh at so I started this second edition with less humor and more seriousness.

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Library of Congress Registration TX0007587868

Copyright 2010 - 2019 Roy Porter Jr.

TIME

Will never be the same!

A NEW approach to the idea of Space -Time that presents a step by step explanation of Gravity.

Could our moon be over 3 years in the future

and the Sun, many more years in the past?

Plus much much more!

"They called me mad, and I called them mad, but damn them, they outvoted me." Quote from Dr. Roy Porter (No relation that I know of)

(Website based on my previous **copyright **Registration TX0007587868, humor-focused __ book __which is presented here in a deliberately more serious manner.)

The grid image around the Earth below is a well-known portrayal of what is usually referred to as the curvature of Space. However, Professor Albert Einstein, the inventor, always referred to it as the curvature of Space-Time. For some reason, scientists usually focus on the first-word SPACE. What about TIME?(Minkowski spacetime is only accurate at describing constant velocity. It was Einstein, though, who discovered the curvature of space-time (gravity) in general relativity.)

What would the "Curvature of Time" look like?

What possibilities could it present?

It is now common scientific knowledge that GPS satellites in **Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) or Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO)** have specially designed clocks to correct for the "Curvature of Time", which clearly shows that this is not science fiction or speculation! (The ever growing number of satellites now in Low Earth Orbit has shifted the focus to the special theory of relativity due to their much faster orbital speeds. Additionally due to being much closer to the Earth, General Relativity may have much less of an effect)

An internet search about the "*effects of Time Dilation on GEO GPS satellites due to GENERAL relativity*" will show that without the "adjusted" clocks, Time-Curvature would result in an

This is NOT due to the movement of the GEO GPS satellite as described by the Special Theory of Relativity. This is due to the General Theory of Relativity. +45 Microseconds may seem extremely small but read on for the big picture.

(We can ignore the -7 micro-seconds slowing due to the Special Theory of Relativity for now. See "Time for more Time" in the preview section for an explanation)

Accumulated Time Dilation (ATD) measured in Cosmic timelines instead of "day to day" timelines results in astonishing numbers! (Astonishing may be an understatement when compared to the minuscule "Day to Day" effects on a GEO satellite).

An example of how large it may possibly be is based on estimated Accumulated Time Dilation around our own Sun. After rough estimated calculations are made, the Sun is a large number of years behind in Time compared to not so far away empty space. Also using rough estimated calculations, our own Moon may be 3 years ahead of our own Earth Time!

**0.021 seconds per year** x **4,510,000,000 +/- years** / 60 sec per minute / 60 minutes per hour / 24 hours per day / 365 days per year = 3.003 Years.

( See "Time for more Time" on the PREVIEW page later for a much smaller but more accurate example based on real-world numbers using the same GEO GPS satellite!)

Is the satellite in the picture below following the curves of Space or is it following the curves of Time? Science focuses on the Curvature of Space, but is there another possibility? (Yes, it is called the curvature of Space-Time at the beginning of all science shows and writings I have seen but that later changes to the curvature of space with only fleeting mentions of Time.)

The rings pictured below are generally thought of as curves in space but what if we consider the curvature of Time in more detail?

In space outside the curved lines shown below, time flows at a faster rate. Time passes at a slower rate as you approach the Earth. Although this difference appears to be extremely small as science measures it day to day, it is actually extremely large when measured from a Cosmic timeline point of view.

We do not see the 3+ years difference between the Earth and the Moon because anything such as Laser Range Finders (light), Radar or even an Astronaut have to cross over "Accumulated Time Dilation Zones" in BOTH directions to travel from the Earth to the Moon and back. In other words, if you travel ahead 3 years in Time to get the Moon, you have to travel 3 years back in Time to get home, resulting in net Time travel of zero!

Is it safe to state that more Time is a higher energy state and less Time is a lower energy state? Much more happens in 3 years than in 3 minutes! More Time can also be thought of as higher pressure while less Time is lower pressure. That can also be represented by the curved lines below and an explanation for Gravity!

Occam's Razor?

Coincidentally, whenever you move "back" in Time while approaching an area of increasing ATD, something seems to also be pulling you in the same direction. Whenever you travel "forward" in Time, away from the same area and toward decreasing ATD, something seems to want you to go in the other direction!

Ask Scientists to ANSWER the following FIVE questions, IN ORDER.

(DO NOT SPOIL IT!, ASK IN ORDER!)

1. Is the moon moving faster through time than the Earth? (General Theory of Relativity)

2. If Yes, By how much? (0.021 Seconds per year)

3. If you take the age of the Moon since the collision that created it and multiply that by the extra time, what would that equal (after converting to years)?

4. Since it's creation, the Moon has moved further forward in time compared to Earth Time, then does Light, Radar or an Astronaut traveling from Earth to the moon have to Time travel to the future to catch up to the Moon's Time? (Reverse travel would give "net" Time Travel as Zero, making time travel not only possible in a limited sense, but provable!)

5(a).

(Slightly redundant to 4 above)

If the Moon is moving FASTER through TIME than the Earth, whenever light, radio or an astronaut travel from Earth to the Moon, do they have to "catch up" and enter it's "Time zone"?

(5b.)

Does this "catch up" require extra "energy" or extra "perceived" travel time?

PLEASE let me know the answer they give!

(even if it is "NO" and "WHY" it is no!)

How to test this? Would a very long tape measure show a different physical distance to the moon than a laser range finder or radar?

More practical test: (Very abbreviated description) Precisely measured long tether, first at 180 degrees, then at 90 degrees to the Earth compared to laser range finder from one end of the tether to the other.

Maybe this can be developed into an experiment for the International Space Station!

Can our measurement of physical space be wrong?

"Other equations work so this idea must be wrong " is not a scientific answer to anything!

The Scientific Method requires Reason / Proof related directly to the theory, not a "no answer" or quoting other theories.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method)

Please skip the following fine print unless you are well versed on this subject!

Predictions:

1. Present calculations for orbits/trajectories etc. within our solar system will slowly drift and become wrong after a few centuries.

Cause: Such calculations are made based on recent measurements and do not take into account Accumulated Gravimetric Time Dilation over time.

(ATD WILL change slowly over time.)

The calculations WILL NOT be accurate after centuries of additional Accumulated Gravimetric Time Dilation occurs. (Measurements made again at the said time will solve this for another few centuries)

2. Local/solar system measurements applied to more distant "cosmic" objects/phenomena will be inaccurate unless Accumulated Gravimetric Time Dilation (sometimes extreme) is factored in.

Scientists will continue to invent "dark matter", "dark energy" "Multi-verses" and other ideas to compensate for the inconsistencies that will always be present when not considering (sometimes extreme) Accumulated Gravimetric Time Dilation of these objects/phenomena.

Can Space Curvature and Time Curvature be interchangeable?

Here on Earth Time can be represented in whole units, that is to say, 1 second or 1 minute (and so on). Professor Albert Einstein's proven General Theory of Relativity clearly now shows that once we consider leaving our planet, the rate of Time flow will change so that 1 second or 1 minute (and so on) will not be the same as on Earth! This is known as *Gravimetric* Time Dilation.

To make matters slightly more complicated, why can't something as simple as the Velocity Equation V=D/T also be V=T/D instead? 55 Miles / 1 Hour (Move 55 Miles in units of 1) vs.1 Hour / 55 Miles (in 1-hour move 55 Miles). This alternate version now allows us to easily define __Time as a "variable" as Einstein's Theories correctly predicts and requires!__ In this new format, we are no longer "bound" into always showing time in unchanging units of 1. Time varies!

Amazingly, this "format" seems to be able to convert any and all Space-Curvature equations to Time-Curvature equations giving the SAME RESULTS as explored through thought experiments! What this ultimately means is that ALL past and present research and equations, including the recent Gravity Probe B and "Gravity Waves", can be converted to this format without changing the end results! All we have to do is mathematically rearrange any related equations so that TIME becomes truly a variable as we know it is! Time cannot and should not be an unchanging "1" as science now represents it! Worse yet, Time is sometimes conveniently but incorrectly represented as 1, as in Meter / 1 Second, dividing by 1 results in incorrectly removing time from equations altogether since anything divided by 1 is itself.

(Advanced Thoughts: It is not as simple as V=T/D. A system of modified equations is required. One equation, V=Accumulated Time Dilation / Distance is needed to represent the changes in "Time Curvature" and another equation V=Distance /Time Proper to show movement through space.)

Why on Earth would we want to change what already seems to work? Simply because it opens up a forever growing list of new possibilities not found in the Space-Curvature model alone!

More is better!

"TIME FACTOR THEORY" uses step by step simplified thought experiments to first better familiarize you with TIME itself. After familiarization, you will then be ready for a Mind and Time bending journey that will take you to many never-before-published ideas based on Time. (See note at bottom of page)

If you understand basic Algebra and the Equations of Velocity and Acceleration,

then it doesn't get much more complicated than that!

Velocity:

V = D / T (Displacement or Distance per Time unit)

and Acceleration: (Change in Velocity)

A = ± Δ V (± Δ is plus or minus delta or "Change in" Velocity),

(More complex ideas are marked as "advanced thoughts" for anyone so inclined... but can be skipped.)

Many important questions may be answered.

Such as:

- Time Dilation is too small, how could it possibly be significant?
- Man has traveled to the Moon and sent spacecraft to Mars and beyond, how can the equations not be right? Partial Hint: "60 miles per hour" or "in an hour go 60 miles"? Is there a difference?
- How can the Curvature of Time, not Space possibly be the cause of Gravity?
- Advanced thoughts-Twisting of Space or Time? Mass Rotation should also create tiny "twists" in the Curvature of Time as well.

Many new concepts I derived from my theory may lead to other explanations such as:

- Gravity - ATD gets larger when approaching a mass. One side of an approaching mass is always in more TiDi!
- Equivalence Principle - A= Delta D/T or A = Delta T/D. Therefore can Delta D/T=Delta T/D? Algebraically wrong but may be equal if specific values applied using TiDi.
- Inertia- Mass surrounded by its own ATDLF controls Inertia? (Accumulated Time Dilation Lines of Force)
- Objects fall at same speed. Object's ATD lines of force crossing Earth's ATD lines of force? ATDLF interactions?
- Red/Blue Shift of light? - Change of frequency due to change in Time rate? (F=1/TiDi? Oh no, not TiDi again!)
- Accumulated Time Dilation around Galaxies? Are they moving apart in Space or in Time? Or both?
- Dark Matter- Billions of Years of Accumulated Time Dilation mistaken as excess Gravity?
- Dark Energy - Moon travel is Net Time Travel of Zero. Incoming light, energy from the Universe is not! (Referring to ATD only - not including travel time of light, energy)
- The "not so" Big Bang. A transition to a "New" Timeline?
- Why Black Holes can be so small if they contain so much mass. ATD allows particles to occupy the same space but not at the same Time!
- Black Holes - Potential to create new Universes? Transitioning internally to a new Timeline could create a new Universe?
- Unlimited number of dimensions found in some equations? (ATD divided into an unlimited number of increments?)
- Special Theory - Effects of speed of C on (and through) ATDLF?
- Heat and cold - Faster Time and Slower Time at the particle level?
- Did the Big Bang start the clock at zero with Zero Gravity? As TiDi accumulated, Gravity emerged to shape our Universe?
- Dinosaurs? If Time Dilation Accumulates, does "Gravity" Increase slowly also? Animals would have to get smaller!
- What happens if we fast forward billions of years? "ATD wells", like the one pictured here get deeper and deeper. Then what?
- Then what? Answer: Eventually, Accumulated Time Dilation will reset Time and reset the Universe.

Disclaimer: These are unproven ideas, however, they are not directly dis-proven either.

Please do not cite generalized disagreement, current math or ideas as dis-proof!

Trying a new recipe *never* includes being forced to follow old recipes, does it?

Furthermore, Pooh Poohing new ideas slow down our advancement!

(The Dark Ages are over!)

However, feel free to post comments as we explore new ideas!

"Fringe" Science is avoided!

All ideas presented are based on a logical step by step possibilities derived from proven Scientific ideas.

Purely speculative science fiction-type ideas are avoided.

(Except when needed as a means to reduce certain human limitations such as extreme long-distance travel. Scientific explanations are given for these "borrowed fringe ideas".)

"Fringe" science is: multi-universes, Time is an illusion, Time travel to kill your own Grandfather before you were born etc.

Time an illusion? Tell that to your boss when your alarm clock is set an hour late by mistake!

Please see the Preview Page for more!

Note:

The movie "Interstellar" has since used the Time -Travel effect caused by Black Holes that is also described in the previous edition of this book published in 2010 (and on its accompanying website).

Stephen Hawking's version additionally required an extremely fast orbital speed.

If this idea or any other ideas listed here, on the previous website or in either book were published before 2010, PLEASE let me know using the contact form on this page. I have done extensive research to try to verify that the ideas I present are original. However, it is impossible to review every item ever published that may be related to Space-Time.